Technical Terms of Products
Material Specification Standards, AMS
AMS is an abbreviation for Aerospace Material Specification, and defines standards for metal materials, tolerances, and quality control procedures and processes. These specs also define chemical composition, detailed technical requirements, and cross-reference similar specifications.
Material Specification Standards, ASTM
ASTM is an abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials, which is an organization that issues standard data specifications on metal materials (and many other products). It was originally formed to develop a standard for the steel used to fabricate railroad rails, which were frequently breaking.
Material Specification Standards, MIL
MIL is an abbreviation for Military specifications or standards, used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many have been withdrawn and replaced by AMS specs, although some material test reports may list both MIL and AMS specs.
Material Test Report
This is also called a Mill Certification (or “Mill Cert”), and sometimes abbreviated as an “MTR.” It is a quality assurance document, usually from the producing mill, that provides traceability for a material’s grade, size or original dimensions that were produced, chemistry composition, lot or heat number, any material specifications that it meets or is produced to, and its physical and mechanical properties.
This refers to properties that indicate a materials elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied. Most common measurements include Tensile Strength, Yield Strength, and Elongation, as well as Reduction of Area and Hardness.
Microstructure is the very small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification. The microstructure of a material strongly influence physical properties such as strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, corrosion resistance, high/low temperature behavior or wear resistance.
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